Psychology and psychiatry, despite their similar names, serve distinct functions. Psychology, the study of the mind and behavior, includes working as a counselor or therapist with patients, with the goal of using psychotherapy to help patients cope with mental illness and trauma.
Psychiatry, or the study of treating mental illness or abnormal behavior, takes a more clinical, medicinal approach to working with clients who are experiencing these issues.
Generally, psychologists work closely with clients to identify and work through personal issues as well as develop healthy coping mechanisms for emotional problems, whereas psychiatrists focus on identifying medicinal or pharmacologic treatments for mental illness or abnormal behaviors.
Although both of these professions necessitate good interpersonal skills and a desire to help others, the training required for them differs. Both professions typically require a doctorate; however, students with a specialized master’s degree may pursue some counseling careers.
Relationship between a psychologist and a psychiatrist
The various types of providers available to help people in need of mental health services can be overwhelming, especially if you are unfamiliar with what each mental health specialist does.
However, among all of these professionals, psychiatry and clinical psychology are most likely to be confused. This could be because clinical psychologists with a PhD or a PsyD are addressed as “Doctor,” just as psychiatrists with an MD or a DO are.
Psychiatrists are also doctors, but they attend medical school and earn degrees as a Doctor of Medicine (MD) or a Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO) (DO).
Nurse practitioners, who can specialize in psychiatry and thus provide many of the same services as psychiatric physicians, are an exception to this rule.
These Psychiatric Nurse Practitioners (PNP) receive their nursing education but then go on to further their education in the practice of psychiatry.
There are some similarities between clinical psychology and psychiatry, but there are also some significant differences. There is some overlap in the services provided by clinical psychologists and psychiatrists. So, before we get to the differences, let’s look at some of their similarities.
Similarities between clinical psychologists and psychiatrists
Clinical psychologists and psychiatrists both spend several years in education and training in the evaluation and treatment of mental disorders, as well as behavioral science. In practice, both can assess, diagnose, and treat mental health disorders.
They would both conduct the clinical interview to understand a person’s presenting complaints and issues, as well as personal, health, and family histories, when it comes to assessment.
Both sets of professionals would also use the information and guidance provided by researched sources, such as the DSM-5, to develop a diagnosis and begin to build an appropriate treatment plan.
Consultation with family members or other professionals involved in that person’s life and care could be included by clinical psychologists and psychiatrists.
They could both provide psychotherapy services in addition to their specific training and expertise, as well as other specialized services to improve social, occupational, and interpersonal functioning.
Differences between clinical psychologists and psychiatrists
Let’s look at the distinctions and why someone might see a psychologist or a psychiatrist.
In terms of training, psychiatrists receive the majority of their education and experience through medical studies.
They, like other physicians, are engrossed in learning about human anatomy, physiology, medication diagnostics, and diseases and how to treat them. They complete medical school, or nursing school in the case of nurse practitioners, and then go on to complete their specialty (a “residency”) in psychiatry.
This post-medical school training gives them a unique perspective on mental disorders by studying the brain and central nervous system functioning, as well as pharmacology, which is the study of medications and their effects on the body.
They are able to understand how other diseases, such as endocrine and metabolic disorders, poor nutrition, drug or alcohol abuse, or brain injuries, can affect the mind and behavior because of their extensive knowledge of the medical practice.
Related: Clinical mental health counseling
Also, they can understand medication interactions, allowing them to safely provide prescriptions for psychiatric disorders. Most psychiatrists receive training and education in therapy styles and techniques during their residency program.
Clinical psychologists typically receive some training in understanding how the body, particularly the brain, influences behavior, but this is not their area of expertise.
For psychologists, the emphasis is on mental processes such as cognition (thoughts), mood and emotion, and behavior, as well as understanding people in the context of their surroundings, particularly in their interpersonal interactions.
Psychologists focus on how to change an individual’s thoughts and behaviors to improve functioning, or how to bring out and clarify their deeper or repressed thoughts and emotions for better understanding and awareness.
Psychiatrists do not typically perform psychological testing like clinical psychologists, but they frequently collaborate with psychologists in the overall assessment and diagnostic process of an individual, couple, or family. Psychiatrists can also use data from certain tests administered by psychologists to help determine the best course of treatment for any given psychiatric patient.
While psychiatrists have the training to understand the complexities of the brain and its impact on cognition, mood, and behavior, some psychologists known as neuropsychologists concentrate on how the brain influences these areas of functioning as well.
Clinical neuropsychologists can perform specialized tests to determine how certain areas of the brain that are not functioning optimally due to disease, damage, or developmental issues affect people’s daily lives.
Neuropsychologists may then collaborate with neurologists or other therapists to provide therapies to address these problem areas, or provide test results to psychiatrists in a collaborative approach to care.
One obvious distinction between psychiatrists and clinical psychologists is that psychiatrists can prescribe medications for mental disorders while clinical psychologists cannot (although there are some exceptions as mentioned above).
Medication evaluations are typically provided by psychiatrists as part of their initial assessment process. This is done to determine whether a person’s psychiatric condition would benefit from medication.
Not everyone who visits a psychiatrist for an evaluation is a candidate for medication, but many people find relief from psychological symptoms with the help of medication.
If the psychiatrist determines that a medication or combination of medications can be beneficial, a prescription will be suggested and provided, along with any additional treatment recommendations, which may include psychotherapy.
Following that, it is common practice to schedule follow-up sessions with the psychiatrist to manage the medications and address any problems or issues that arise as treatment progresses.
A psychiatrist’s primary role in mental health care is frequently this. If he or she is not providing any therapy services in addition to medications, the psychiatrist will frequently allow the patient to work with a therapist, such as a clinical psychologist, on their deeper and more complex life issues, while ensuring the medications are effective and have few or no side effects.
Again, not everyone seeking mental health services will need medication. Psychotherapy, with or without medication, is generally regarded as the treatment of choice. However, when medication is indicated, the psychiatrist and therapist can offer a dual treatment approach that can provide the best results.
There may also be times when therapy is completed but the need for medication persists. After meetings with the psychologist are no longer required, medications may be renewed and occasionally monitored by the treating psychiatrist.
Conclusion on the Clinical psychologist vs psychiatrist
Clinical psychologists and psychiatrists can provide similar mental health services in similar settings, but they also approach their work differently. Both offer assessment and treatment for mental disorders such as mood disorders and depression, anxiety, psychosis, substance abuse, traumatic brain injury, and many other conditions.
They can also provide psychotherapy as well as other novel treatments for these illnesses, as well as collaborate with other professionals as needed.
However, the main distinctions between psychiatrists and psychologists usually revolve around important aspects of their training, the tools they use to assess patients, and the areas of treatment they typically focus on. Psychiatrists assess and diagnose mental disorders from both a medical and psychological standpoint.
They can then make treatment recommendations, but they usually rely on their own experience as a medication provider.
Once medications are prescribed, psychiatrists will oversee their patients’ medication management for as long as they are required. Psychologists assess and diagnose as well, but they may use psychological testing instruments to provide a more comprehensive and often more accurate picture of individuals with mental health conditions and the specific difficulties they may be facing.
Clinical psychologists can then provide a variety of psychotherapy services based on the needs of the individuals, couples, or families involved.
Psychiatrists and clinical psychologists can both provide critical mental health services while working together to ensure optimal well-being and success.
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